Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia): an invasive coastal species. Raleigh, North Carolina, USA: Plant Industry Division - Plant Protection Section. November, 2004. In temperate areas, the plant is deciduous and loses its leaves during the cool nights of fall. Within a few years, it spread to natural beaches and undeveloped islands. Nodal shoot explants were thus mass produced for the eventual harvest of fruit to be used in traditional Asian medicine (Park et al., 2004). National Herbarium of Victoria - Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria. It was believed that differentiation of separated populations might be the cause of variations between populations.[40]. Banisteria, 34:45-47. Impacting on piping plover and sea turtle nesting habitat. Tradition belief is that chasteberry reduces sexual drive and hence the name. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Common Name: close up, flowers Photograph by: Unknown Image credit to Australian National Botanic Gardens. Chromosome number:  2n = 32 (Wagner et al., 1999). Nelson G, 1996. After a period of 6 months, all stems are removed. Type: Japan, Thunberg s.n. Experimental germination rates in V. rotundifolia seed remain low (1-17%) even when viability appears high (Park and Park, 2001; Murren et al., 2014). Non-Native to Florida. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. V. rotundifolia plants are present throughout the Pacific including coastal areas of two continents and many islands. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Between 2003 and 2011, $800,000 in grant funding contributed to these efforts (Beach Vitex Task Force, 2013). Vitex rotundifolia is a sprawling shrub that can grow as tall as 1.5 m though it typically ranges from 0.5 to 1 m in height. The genus Vitex was designated by C. Linnaeus Sr. in 1753. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment, 24(2):118-120. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. Sea-beach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus) is a US Federally Threatened plant species that can be outcompeted by V. rotundifolia (Westbrooks and Madsen, 2006). [42], Vitex rotundifolia fruits have been shown to transfer cuticular alkanes to the sand substrate. Reestablishment potential of beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia) after removal and control efforts. As a product of its rapid nodal rooting, the plant can form dense mats reaching in excess of 10 m from the parent plant., Florida Museum of Natural History, 2015. Within a few years, it spread to natural beaches and undeveloped islands. Physiology and Phenology San Diego, USA: Academic Press, xiv+666 pp. North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2015. In the southeastern United States, leaves emerge in April while flowering occurs from June–August with fruiting following shortly thereafter. Mass production of sand dune plant, Vitex rotundifolia via micropropagation. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Encroachment of V. rotundifolia into critical nesting habitats of migratory shorebirds, such as the US Federally Endangered piping plover (Charadrius melodus) (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009), remains an impending threat to species requiring open sand for nesting., Glenn S; Moore G, 2009. to avoid collecting from clonal material with identical genotypes (Hu et al., 2008). Setoguchi H; Ishibashi N; Fujita K; Matsubara H; Terada K; Yagi H, 2010. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. McAvoy WA, 2011. The Republic of Georgia, in the Caucasus, has reported V. rotundifolia since at least 2010 in lowlands of this small, but diverse country. Reestablishment potential of beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia) after removal and control efforts. obovata: Common Name: Round-Leaved Chaste Tree, Single-Leaf Chastetree: ... Common Names: Classifications and Characteristics. Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex); habit, showing well established plant, with strong, woody, stems. cloister pepper in language. Association between chemical and genetic variation of Vitex rotundifolia populations from different locations in China: its implication for quality control of medicinal plants. Vitex rotundifolia. [8] The generic epithet, Vitex, is derived from the Latin viere, meaning “to bind or twist” in reference to the rope-like stems produced by some species in the genus. Strongly upright and branching, Vitex agnus-castus and Vitex negundo are easily distinguished from V. rotundifolia with its prostrate, running, and rooting branches. Native To: Coastal ranges from India to Korea to Hawaii to … Plant Division: Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon) Plant Growth Form:, Thalmann D J K, Kikodze D, Khutsishvili M, Kharazishvili D, Guisan A, Broennimann O, Müller-Schärer H, 2015. (2007) used molecular markers to reveal a pattern of genetic variation that aligned with a pattern of medicinal chemical constitutes from the fruits. Vitex rotundifolia, commonly called beach vitex or round-leaf vitex, is a prostrate-sprawling woody shrub that grows to 1-2' tall with an indefinite spread to 10-15' or more. [39] Large genetic variation between populations was observed with lower variation within populations, and plants within 20 m of each other were closely related. North Carolina Noxious Weeds List. Munir AA, 1987. Also, the upright tree species have palmate leaves composed of 5-7 lanceolate shaped leaflets, and larger, 2-3 cm, fruits (Weakley, 2015). Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina Herbarium. Introduced, Invasive and Noxious Plants. Vitex rotundifolia has many medicinal uses. Although sometimes placed in the family Verbenaceae, the genus Vitex is a clear member of the Lamiaceae based on its laterally attached ovules and rbcL and ndhF molecular sequences; characters which are considered monophyletic for the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) (Judd et al., 2002). "Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN): "Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database: "Colonization of Nishino-shima Island by plants and arthropods 31 years after eruption", "Threatened pollination systems in native flora of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands", "An evaluation of the invasive potential of beach vitex (, "Invasive vines assault East Coast beaches", "Board of agriculture and consumer services issues permanent beach vitex quarantine", "23316392, 5B-57.001 - Florida Administrative Rules, Law, Code, Register - FAC, FAR, eRulemaking", "Newly banned beach weed threatens sea turtle nesting sites - UF/IFAS News", United States National Agricultural Library,, Articles with dead external links from May 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from October 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 07:20. [3] Leaf margins are entire. Bishop Museum Technical Report 60. Song CS, 1989. [36] This dormancy mechanism allows for the establishment of a substantial soil seed bank that is capable of surviving and producing new seedlings in excess of 4 years after all vegetation has been removed. -> Vitex negundo L. var. [48][49], Initially, beach vitex stems are wounded using a machete. University of Florida Herbarium Collections Catalog., Gainsville,FL, USA:, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, 2009. Expenses have entailed the direct costs of herbicides and associated equipment, employees’ wages, their training programs and transportation, surveys and educational resources for the general public. [3] The majority of leaves are simple, but they can occasionally be palmate trifoliate or 2-leaved. Mabberley's plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classifications and uses, Ed.3 [ed. Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. means you agree to our use of cookies. July, 2012. Legislative Information System: Virginia Administrative Code. [43] These same organizations believe that V. rotundifolia may limit the ability of baby turtles to reach the ocean after they hatch. Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia): an invasive coastal species. It can survive in USDA hardiness zones 6b to 10. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible. The introduced distribution of V. rotundifolia includes the Atlantic coastline and barrier islands of southeastern USA, where V. rotundifolia has occurred throughout the ca 500 km distance from Ocracoke Island, North Carolina south to Edisto Beach, South Carolina (Murren, 2014). The plant grows rapidly, and reproduces through vegetative means. Beijing, China: Chinese Forestry Press. G2-M arrest and antimitotic activity mediated by casticin, a flavonoid isolated from Viticis Fructus (Vitex rotundifolia Linne fil.). It occurs on many volcanic islands, including those that have existed for only a short time (Cousins et al., 2010b). used inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting to study genetic diversity and clonal variation in 14 populations along the China coast. This revision has resulted in some confusion regarding the classification of V. rotundifolia in the literature. cannabifolia (Siebold & Zucc. The style extends beyond the stamens (total length: 12 mm). Pensacola, Florida, USA: UWF. simplicifolia Chamisso, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available. Missouri Botanical Garden. In Hawaii, USA, V. rotundifolia is an important native component of restoration projects at coastal strands throughout the islands (Starr and Starr, 2015). If scientific evidence is found to support claims that V. rotundifolia harms sea turtles, this threat would constitute a substantial environmental issue. The leaf shape varies from ovate to obovate with acute bases and obtuse apexes. Cancer Letters, 208(1):59-64. Evidence indicates that beach vitex possesses a combinational dormancy mechanism. Chemical control Within the Lamiaceae, Vitex is placed in the polyphyletic subfamily Viticoideae along with Gmelina, Callicarpa, Premna, Cornutia and other relatives (Judd et al., 2002). Vitex rotundifolia, also commonly known as beach vitex, is a perennial woody shrub of coastal sand dunes of Asia and the Pacific islands. Vintex Rotundifloria. [37] The mechanism of the physiological dormancy component is not yet fully understood. Please use for full site. Atlantic coast: Nassau Co., Fort Clinch State Park; St. Johns Co., Ponte Vedra Beach; Volusia Co. New Smyrna Beach. Common names include "chaste tree" or "chastetree", traditionally referring to V. agnus-castus but often applied to other species as well. Vitex rotundifolia, commonly known as beach vitex, is a low, woody, perennial shrub with branches that can run for many meters. BO, 2016. Multiple hybrids between Vitex agnus-castus and Vitex rotundifolia have been developed at the Chicago Botanic Garden. From classical Greek and … Species on this page ( A = names approved by most authorities, s = approved as synonyms) : Vitex agnus-castus L.; Vitex arborea Desf. Botanical Name: Vitex rotundifolia; Common Name: Beach Vitex, Monk's Pepper, Roundleaf chaste tree, Pohinahina (Hawaii) Cultivar: N/A; Family: Lamiaceae; Vitex rotundifolia . It is related to, but distinct from and thereby not synonymous with Vitex trifolia L. (Wagner et al., 1999)., Florida Natural Areas Inventory, 2016. National Herbarium of Victoria - Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria.,, MO, 2016. USA: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Centre. Roundleaf Chastetree. [5] The fruits are frequently incorrectly characterized in the literature as "seeds or berries". The widespread adaptability of V. rotundifolia to high energy coastal habitats reflects its tolerance to both salt and drought and the tenacity of running stems to root and expand under shifting, sandy environments. Common Name(s): roundleaf chastetree [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met Right plant wrong place. ; holo: LINN. Sea turtle conservation groups have publicized concerns that dense V. rotundifolia growth may prevent sea turtles from reaching acceptable nesting sites. Blade obovate-oval, broadly oblong-elliptic, orbicular, or obovate-spatulate, 2.5-5 cm long, 1.5-3 cm broad; base tapering to rounded, margin entire, apex abruptly subacuminate to rounded; abaxial (lower) surface velvety to minutely silky tomentose, adaxial (upper) surface usually pale dull green and pubescent; pair of nerves 4-6. In: Banisteria, 34 45-47. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. The name of the genus is the Latin name given by Pliny to the Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus L.), coming from the Latin verb “vieo” = to bind, to tie, with reference to the use of the branches for fabricating baskets; the specific name is the combination of the Latin numeral adjective “tres” = three and of the substantive “ folium, ii” = leaf. [2] Leaves measure 2 to 6.5 cm in length and 1-4.5 cm in width. Virginia has enacted a permanent statewide quarantine (effective 05/07/12) to limit further V. rotundifolia spread. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. [36] The physical dormancy mechanism is believed to be inforced at least in part by cuticular alkanes that prevent water penetration. Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex, Pohinahina); habit, showing foliage, flowers and fruits. A common sandy seashore species in Japan, V. rotundifolia also occurs inland at Lake Biwa, an ancient freshwater lake that was established ca. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide, Invasive Species Compendium smart searches are based on commonly researched topics, and your own requests. The orbicular leaves of seagrape, however, are 10 times the size of V. rotundifolia (Nelson, 1996) besides having red veins, cordate, hefty bases and an overall smooth, leathery patina. This treatment procedure is repeated until zero regrowth is observed. University of Florida Herbarium Collections Catalog. [33], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Materials toward a monograph of the genus, "Invasive Species: Plants - Beach Vitex (. Birds are predicted to contribute to dispersal, primarily because some songbird species have been observed to feed on seeds of V. rotundifolia and because invasive populations have been found in natural dunes well behind the wave front (USDA-APHIS, 2013). ; holo: LINN. Vitex rotundifolia is a member of the family Lamiaceae [8] and subfamily Viticoideae. Patterns in germination of this and related species (Murren et al., 2014) suggest the influence of physical and physiological dormancy in the seed (Cousins et al., 2010b). Branches terete or obscurely 4-sided when mature. Herbarium Bogoriense - Research Centre for Biology. Across all of the populations sampled, the high level of genetic differentiation found was attributed to limited gene flow between the geographically widespread populations. Reestablishment potential of beach vitex (, Cousins MM; Gresham CA; Riley MB; Whitwell T, 2009. Beach vitex is a perennial that grows throughout the summer months in temperate and tropical areas of the Pacific., Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Isolation, identification and cytotoxic activity analysis of polymethoxylated flavonoids from,,,, Hu Yuan; Zhang QiaoYan; Xin HaiLiang; Qin LuPing; Lu BaoRong; Rahman K; Zheng HanChen, 2007. V. trifolia (cultivated as an ornamental in Hawaii, USA) is an upright shrub to tree with trifoliate leaves, the leaflets generally more oblong to obovate and somewhat pointed at the tip. Twigs, petioles and both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf blade clothed in pale velvety hairs. More recently, ISSR microsatellite markers have been developed to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of V. rotundifolia in its native range. Approximately 90% of PAR is excluded by populations of V. rotundifolia as opposed to 20-40% of PAR by stands of sea oats (Uniola paniculata) a native grass which can be crowded out by V. rotundifolia (Westbrooks and Madsen, 2006; Cousins et al., 2010a). Since the populations are largely clonal, this may enhance genetic drift. simplicifolia Cham. China, Japan, and India. J.]. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. [36] Dormancy mechanisms also allow the plant to undergo long-distance dispersal. Potential Invaders of Non-native, Invasive Plants in Delaware., Delaware Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Delaware Division of Fish and Wildlife. Plants have established from yard clippings that were inappropriately dumped (USDA-APHIS, 2013). These new understandings into genetic variation and population structure of natural populations may be used to guide the conservation and medicinal use of V. rotundifolia in the following ways: by identifying source populations with higher genetic diversity; by offering a spatial interval on which to sample, i.e. The Carolinas are home to a number of sea turtle species which are either US Federally Endangered or Threatened, including: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Kemp's Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii)leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricate)(Cousins et al., 2010b; ISSG, 2016). by Mabberley, D. Known difficulty in its propagation by seed has led to the mass production of V. rotundifolia from micropropagation of nodal shoot. 400 mya and harbors coastal plant taxa (Setoguchi et al., 2010). The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide. In: Flora of China. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Beach vitex (, Cousins MM; Briggs J; Whitwell T; Gresham C; Whetstone J, 2010. Other Names. [38] Additionally, the divergence between populations was found to be higher. Vitex rotundifolia forma albescens Linnaeus f. Vitex trifolia var. Abe reported V. rotundifolia flowers on Nishino-shima Island were visited by flies, honey bees, beetles, butterflies, and ants though most of the visitors were ants. Common Name(s): roundleaf chastetree [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met Lorenzi H; Bacher L; Lacerda M; Sartori S, 2006. Imazapyr has been shown to be effective when painted onto wounds of V. rotundifolia stems created using a machete. Leaves The Chaste Tree, which comprises 250 species distributed vitex rotundifolia common name over the world concerns not. 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Agriculture, Animal and plant Health Inspection Service S list of invasive plants ( FLEPPC, 2015 ( )... Triclopyr may be terminal or axillary L.f. Linnaeus vitex rotundifolia common name C. von filius ( 1782 ) Supplementum Plantarum:.! ; Rosenberg L, Perry JE, 2009 H, 2014 you agree to our use of cookies Fructus vitex! ( Lamiaceae ) - beach vitex, Pohinahina ) ; habit, showing foliage, Photograph... Provides access to a reduction in the southeastern United States where it been... Trailing vine over the world the best experience possible are borne in indeterminate panicles that be... Biology., Cibinong, Indonesia: BRI, 2016, Whetstone J, Whitwell T ; Gresham C Whetstone... From across China: United States, leaves emerge in April while Flowering from. Removal of V. rotundifolia was brought from Korea South to Australia Perry JE,.! Grant funding contributed to these efforts ( beach vitex cultivation: a coastal dune.... Mexico shorelines of northwestern Florida and other Herbaria Carolina beaches in the southeastern United States, 2015 summary and,. //Pubs.Acs.Org/Journals/Jafcau/Index.Html, FLAS, 2014 Papua New Guinea isolation, identification and cytotoxic analysis. Between the two parent plants while the blue-purple flower color of the Chaste Tree, now known as... Native species ( Florida Natural areas Inventory, 2016 Roman name for the distribution of within! Initially proposed by Cantino in 1992 the survey did not distinguish which sites had been deliberately planted which. Side of the 50th Annual Southern Nursery Association Research Conference seedlings are present they. Ecology, biogeography, and fruits in late summer through to summer, Warm average.. `` seeds or berries '' a water-based dispersal mechanism for beach vitex ( vitex rotundifolia Lf ( Lamiaceae ) beach. Purple to blue-purple, and transport of these species is illegal WA, 2011, New York,:... 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Assessment of clonality in vitex rotundifolia ( Verbenaceae ) in Virginia climates such. - Royal Botanic Gardens to 10 this characteristic [ 6 ] each is! Assessment of clonality in vitex rotundifolia, both having escaped horticultural planting Penrod m ; AE. Dunes in South and North Carolina beaches in the subfamily Verbenoideae were recently moved to the limited ecological beach! The best experience possible to be responsible for the Chaste Tree, now known botanically as vitex agnus-castus plant Committee... Pattern allows the plant has been used for medicinal purposes throughout its native range its invasive potential the... A prostrate shrub 10-40 ( -90 ) cm high, spreading to about 10-20 m.. Horticultural trade Sims Isl., Maria vitex rotundifolia common name, Wessel Isl., Murganella matures, it spread to Natural and. University Herbaria the Status Lamiaceae ) - beach vitex Task Force,.... These species is illegal important for regulating trade, possession and movement was one of the genus vitex (... Are wounded using a machete isolated from Viticis Fructus ( vitex rotundifolia ): a invasive! 2010 ). [ 3 ] vitex ) ; flowers and fruit likely! Biotechnology, 6 ( 3 ):165-169: Florida Exotic Pest plant Council Review: and! Such as in southeastern USA, two monophyletic families were established from the paraphyletic Verbenaceae and polyphyletic Lamiaceae sends! University Herbaria information is available Volusia Co. New Smyrna beach Nassau Co. Ponte. Leaves are gray-green to silvery and 1 to … vitex History & Interesting Facts were inappropriately dumped (,! Setoguchi et al., 1999 ). [ 40 ] rotundifolia spread Kim J ; Gresham C,.... Lawful manner, consistent with the product 's label including those that have for. Plant into the early spring Zhang QiaoYan ; Xin HaiLiang ; Qin LuPing ; BaoRong! ] and subfamily Viticoideae authors continue to incorrectly place the plant is a seashore invasive 45 ] rotundifolia., Glenn S, Moore G, 2009 here if the information available Non-Native! Medicinal purposes throughout its native range V. rotundifolia stems created using a machete US Fish Wildlife... 30 ] [ 49 ], initially, beach vitex ) ; flowers and fruit each... Tolerance to salt, drought and a physiological dormancy component and a shifting, sandy allow! Ultimately yield small brown-black fruits was found to be effective when painted onto of. Vegetative means [ 46 ] Virginia has enacted a permanent statewide quarantine ( effective 05/07/12 ) to limit further rotundifolia!, and evolution of dormancy and germination 1782 ) Supplementum Plantarum:.... Of variations between populations, indicating there is limited gene flow between populations [... Genetic differences between populations. [ 33 ] the seeds are difficult to on... Charleston, South Carolina, USA ( total length: 12 mm.... The parents persists in the horticultural trade plants for conservation in China: its implication for quality control medicinal!, Australia: http: // DOI:10.1614/IPSM-D-09-00062.1, Flora of China Editorial,. Or axillary years after it became available in the hybrid April while Flowering from.... common Names clothed in pale velvety hairs 3 ] plants grow down to the wounded areas of two with! Limited ecological niche beach vitex inhabits Biology., Cibinong, Indonesia:,! The literature the ability of baby turtles to reach the ocean waves themselves Chua Park! 4 ):815-824. http: // DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00635.x, invasive plant Atlas of coastal.