Thus the new name for the family Palmae became Arecaceae. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, "Reviving the Coconut Industry of the Philippines", "Coconut faces a looming global supply shortage, but could an Australian industry crack it? [32] Thor Heyerdahl provides an alternative, and much shorter, estimate based on his first-hand experience crossing the Pacific Ocean on the raft Kon-Tiki: "The nuts we had in baskets on deck remained edible and capable of germinating the whole way to Polynesia. However, like most palm fossils, Cocos-like fossils are still putative, as they are usually difficult to identify. The main coconut-producing area in the Middle East is the Dhofar region of Oman, but they can be grown all along the Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, and Red Sea coasts, because these seas are tropical and provide enough humidity (through seawater evaporation) for coconut trees to grow. Wetland Status. Within the hard outer wrapping is a nut-like fruit and within this hard nut is milk, meat, and oil. Chan, Edward and Craig R. Elevitch. The hard shells, fibrous husks and long pinnate leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decoration. [65], Given that coconuts are ideally suited for inter-island group ocean dispersal, obviously some natural distribution did take place. For other uses, see, "Coconut tree" redirects here. [105], The sap derived from incising the flower clusters of the coconut is drunk as neera, also known as toddy or tubâ (Philippines), tuak (Indonesia and Malaysia) or karewe (fresh and not fermented, collected twice a day, for breakfast and dinner) in Kiribati. The production of coconuts plays an important role in the economy, with 25% of cultivated land (around 3.56 million hectares) used for coconut plantations and approximately 25 to 33% of the population reliant on coconuts for their livelihood. Coconut fruit in the wild are light, buoyant, and highly water resistant. [137], It was the main food of adherents of the now discontinued Vietnamese religion Đạo Dừa. [67] Yellowing diseases affect plantations in Africa, India, Mexico, the Caribbean and the Pacific Region. [50] However, there is some evidence that it may be polygamomonoecious, and may occasionally have bisexual flowers. It noted that by using these small atolls, the species could easily island-hop. Dried coconut leaves can be burned to ash, which can be harvested for lime. Coconut palms are hard to establish in dry climates, and cannot grow there without frequent irrigation; in drought conditions, the new leaves do not open well, and older leaves may become desiccated; fruit also tends to be shed. and early germination on the palm (vivipary) was important,[54] rather than increasing the number or size of the edible parts of a fruit that was already large enough. The dried calyx is used as fuel in wood-fired stoves. Frison, E.A. Coconut Oil, also called Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil, is a pale-yellow, semisolid, edible oil. [129] CAPB may cause mild skin irritation,[129] but allergic reactions to CAPB are rare[130] and probably related to impurities rendered during the manufacturing process (which include amidoamine and dimethylaminopropylamine) rather than CAPB itself. This pattern coincides with the known trade routes of Austronesian sailors. [13] Another early mention of the coconut dates back to the "One Thousand and One Nights" story of Sinbad the Sailor wherein he bought and sold a coconut during his fifth voyage. ; Muralidharan, K.; Parthasarathy, V.A. Per 100-gram serving, coconut water contains 19 calories and no significant content of essential nutrients. The coconut palm fruit is called a coconut. It is a primary source of food, drink, and shelter. [48] Coconuts sold in the shops of nontropical countries often have had the exocarp (outermost layer) removed. Preferred scientific name Cocos nucifera L. There are no other known species in the genus Cocos. KathNiel Series: Kathryn Bernardo, Daniel Padilla will do this 2021 project? The mesocarp is composed of a fiber, called coir, which has many traditional and commercial uses. [42][43][44] Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, taking 15 to 20 years to reach peak production. 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But research on them is still ongoing to determine which of them (if any) actually belong to the genus Cocos. - ABC News", "The Chemistry of Coconut Milk and Cream", "Full Report (All Nutrients): 12117, Nuts, coconut milk, raw (liquid expressed from grated meat and water)", "Ginataang Manok (Chicken Stewed in Coconut Milk) Filipino Recipe! Mathur, P.N. Coconut water serves as a suspension for the endosperm of the coconut during its nuclear phase of development. The falling nature of their mature fruit has led to preoccupation with death by coconut.[3]. [35] [51] The female flower is much larger than the male flower. They were commonly carried by Spanish ships as a source of fresh water. This type of root system is known as fibrous or adventitious, and is a characteristic of grass species. Indonesia overtook it in 2010. [91] Coconut chips, made from oven-baked coconut meat, have been sold in the tourist regions of Hawaii and the Caribbean.[104]. Maypans are a sturdy coconut. [27][28], A study in 2011 identified two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations of coconuts, one originating from Island Southeast Asia (the Pacific group) and the other from the southern margins of the Indian subcontinent (the Indo-Atlantic group). Coconut water can be fermented to produce coconut vinegar. The shell, freed from the husk, and heated on warm ashes, exudes an oily material that is used to soothe dental pains in traditional medicine of Cambodia. Scientific Name: Cocos L. (Arecaceae) nucifera L. Related Plants 'Fiji Dwarf' 'Green Malayan' 'Jamaican Tall' 'Malay … For asthma: Drink 15-30 mL (1-2 spoonfuls) of coconut oil 2-3 times a day. In the Malay language, it is pokok seribu guna ("the tree of a thousand uses"). [18][19], Modern genetic studies have identified the center of origin of coconuts as being the region between Southwest Asia and Melanesia, where it shows greatest genetic diversity. Cocos L. – coconut palm : Species: Cocos nucifera L. – coconut palm, Palma de Coco The name coconut is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning 'head' or 'skull' after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. Other aspects such as seed size, shape and weight, and copra thickness are also important factors in the selection of new cultivars. Gasa suggested, for lack of paper, delivering by dugout canoe a message inscribed on a husked coconut shell, reading “Nauru Isl commander / native knows posit / he can pilot / 11 alive need small boat / Kennedy.”[117] This coconut was later kept on the president's desk, and is now in the John F. Kennedy Library.[118]. Stem: Solitary, usually leaning or curving, but can be erect, to 25 m tall and 30 cm in diameter, gray to brown in … It prefers areas with abundant sunlight and regular rainfall (1,500–2,500 mm [59–98 in] annually), which makes colonizing shorelines of the tropics relatively straightforward. 'Cocos nucifera' lethal yellowing phytoplasma CILY-43-100-1. Salunkhe, D.K., J.K. Chavan, R.N. The aim is to knock a coconut off the stand and win it. [9] They have been found in the Caribbean and the Atlantic coasts of Africa and South America for less than 500 years (the Caribbean native inhabitants do not have a dialect term for them, but use the Portuguese name), but evidence of their presence on the Pacific coast of South America antedates Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas. [citation needed], A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.4 kg (3.1 lb). Cocos nucifera Taxonomy ID: 13894 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid13894) current name Scientific name, COCOS NUCIFERA OIL is classified as :EmollientHair conditioningMaskingSkin conditioningSolvent. [69], Brontispa longissima (coconut leaf beetle) feeds on young leaves, and damages both seedlings and mature coconut palms. [73] Training schools for pig-tailed macaques still exist both in southern Thailand and in the Malaysian state of Kelantan. COSING REF No: 75444. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. It is one of the most useful plants worldwide and is usually known as the tree of life. The scientific name of Coconut Tree is the botanical name or formal name. But we had laid about half among the special provisions below deck, with the waves washing around them. [42] A frayed piece of root can also be used as a toothbrush. [citation needed], In 2010, Indonesia increased its coconut production. Coconuts probably originated somewhere in Indo-Malaya and are one of the most important crops of the tropics. Coconuts have a nearly cosmopolitan distribution thanks to human action in using them for agriculture. The various parts of the coconut have a number of culinary uses. C. binoriensis has been claimed by their authors to be the earliest known fossil of Cocos nucifera. [33], Coconuts are susceptible to the phytoplasma disease, lethal yellowing. Many insect pests and diseases affect the species and are a nuisance for commercial production. [46], Botanically, the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. [32] If they were naturally distributed and had been in the Pacific for a thousand years or so, then we would expect the eastern shore of Australia, with its own islands sheltered by the Great Barrier Reef, to have been thick with coconut palms: the currents were directly into, and down along this coast. Coconuts can only be grown in temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) and need a daily temperature above 22 °C (72 °F) to produce fruit. However, the locations of the admixture events are limited to Madagascar and coastal east Africa, and exclude the Seychelles. Thailand has been raising and training pig-tailed macaques to pick coconuts for around 400 years. DESCRIPTION. Australian cities put much effort into de-fruiting decorative coconut trees to ensure that the mature coconuts do not fall and injure people. Although these modifications for domestication would reduce the fruit's ability to float, this ability would be irrelevant to a cultivated population. (1995). Hawaiians hollowed the trunk to form drums, containers, or small canoes. In the United States, coconut palms can be grown and reproduced outdoors without irrigation in Hawaii, southern and central Florida,[88] and the territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. The young coconut plants need to be nursed and irrigated with drip pipes until they are old enough (stem bulb development) to be irrigated with brackish water or seawater alone, after which they can be replanted on the beaches. [55][56], Variants of C. nucifera are also categorized as tall (var. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. [citation needed], Among modern C. nucifera, two major types or variants occur: a thick-husked, angular fruit and a thin-husked, spherical fruit with a higher proportion of endosperm reflect a trend of cultivation in C. nucifera. Cocos nucifera L. Preferred Common Name. [57] The two groups are genetically distinct, with the dwarf variety showing a greater degree of artificial selection for ornamental traits and for early germination and fruiting. The endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. The Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannur under Kerala Agricultural University has developed an innovative extension approach called the compact area group approach to combat coconut mites. The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos. A long handle made from some other wood may be inserted into the base of the bundle and used as a two-handed broom. [47] Like other fruits, it has three layers: the exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp. (1950) Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific by Raft. Narali Purnima is celebrated on a full moon day which usually signifies the end of monsoon season in India. When left to ferment on its own, it becomes palm wine. They need year round warmth and moisture to grow well and fruit. nana). Mature, ripe coconuts can be used as edible seeds, or processed for oil and plant milk from the flesh, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. [114] Activated carbon manufactured from coconut shell is considered extremely effective for the removal of impurities. Learn how your comment data is processed. Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia, Learn how and when to remove this template message, more deaths are caused by falling coconuts than by sharks, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, "coco | Origin and meaning of coco by Online Etymology Dictionary", "coconut | Origin and meaning of coconut by Online Etymology Dictionary", "The Fifth Voyage of Sindbad the Seaman – The Arabian Nights – The Thousand and One Nights – Sir Richard Burton translator", "A Brief History of the Coconut Palm in Australia", "Independent Origins of Cultivated Coconut (, "Coconuts: not indigenous, but quite at home nevertheless", "Ancient crops provide first archaeological signature of the westward Austronesian expansion", "An early sophisticated East Polynesian voyaging canoe discovered on New Zealand's coast", "Long-distance dispersal of the coconut palm by migration within the coral atoll ecosystem", "Fossil fruit of Cocos L. (Arecaceae) from Maastrichtian-Danian sediments of central India and its phytogeographical significance", "An update of monocot macrofossil data from New Zealand and Australia", "A Fossil Coconut Fruit from the Early Eocene of Gujarat", Rise in coconut yield, farming area put India on top, "How Long Does It Take for a Coconut Tree to Get Coconuts? (2015), however, suggests that their diversity in New Zealand indicate that they evolved endemically, rather than being introduced to the islands by long-distance dispersal. However, they can be found in humid areas with low annual precipitation such as in Karachi, Pakistan, which receives only about 250 mm (9.8 in) of rainfall per year, but is consistently warm and humid. "[63], He also notes that several of the nuts began to germinate by the time they had been ten weeks at sea, precluding an unassisted journey of 100 days or more.[32]. This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 12:49. Plants are intolerant of cold weather and prefer copious precipitation, as well as full sunlight. Cocos nucifera, Coconut Palm. [25][20][26][22] The similarities of the local names in the Austronesian region is also cited as evidence that the plant originated in the region. Plant Name. A coconut can be hollowed out and used as a home for a rodent or small birds. The UAE has, however, imposed strict laws on mature coconut tree imports from other countries to reduce the spread of pests to other native palm trees, as the mixing of date and coconut trees poses a risk of cross-species palm pests, such as rhinoceros beetles and red palm weevils. The fruit may also be damaged by eriophyid coconut mites (Eriophyes guerreronis). Decayed roots are replaced regularly as the tree grows new ones. p. 254. It is also often stated that coconuts can travel 110 days, or 3,000 miles (4,800 km), by sea and still be able to germinate. Coconut Palm Tree – Cocos nucifera The Coconut Palm Tree, scientific name Cocos nucifera, is one of the most popular palms in the world because of its fruits “coconuts”. Coconut milk, not to be confused with coconut water, is obtained by pressing the grated coconut meat, usually with hot water added which extracts the coconut oil, proteins, and aromatic compounds. The coir is used to make brooms in Cambodia.[113]. However their historical distribution was likely more limited. The cups were frequently engraved and decorated with precious metals.[115]. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The earliest Cocos-like fossil to be found was "Cocos" zeylanica, a fossil species described from small fruits, around 3.5 cm (1.4 in) × 1.3 to 2.5 cm (0.51 to 0.98 in) in size, recovered from the Miocene (~23 to 5.3 million years ago) of New Zealand in 1926. Coconut trees also are increasingly grown for decorative purposes along the coasts of the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia with the help of irrigation. Scientific Classification [9] Thenga, its Malayalam name, was used in the detailed description of coconut found in Itinerario by Ludovico di Varthema published in 1510 and also in the later Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. (1993). 2) Origin: not native to North America Uses: fruit tree; wide tree lawns (>6 feet wide); medium-sized tree lawns (4-6 feet wide); recommended for buffer strips around parking lots or [85], The coconut is the national tree of the Maldives and is considered the most important plant in the country. Tannin produces negative effects on sapling growth. In the Philippines, the coconut is commonly called the "tree of life". ©2004-2020 Universal Taxonomic Services. [135], The flowers are used sometimes in wedding ceremonies in Cambodia. Later, the endosperm matures and deposits onto the coconut rind during the cellular phase. It is also popular in Indonesia (where it is known as kopyor) for making beverages.[81]. Early Spanish explorers called it coco, which means “monkey face” because the three indentations (eyes) on the hairy nut resembles the head and face of a monkey. [1] The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut")[2] can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. Drift models based on wind and ocean currents have shown that coconuts could not have drifted across the Pacific unaided. Omani people needed the coir rope from the coconut fiber to stitch together their traditional seagoing dhow vessels in which nails were never used. : B. arenosella, B. atriloqua (feeds exclusively on C. nucifera), B. mathesoni (feeds exclusively on C. nucifera), and B. However they are mainly present as decoration, and the Australian coconut industry is small; Australia is a net importer of coconut products. There are currently two major viewpoints on the origins of the genus Cocos, one in the Indo-Pacific, and another in South America. [91], A special cultivar of coconut known as macapuno has a jelly-like coconut meat. In Thailand, the coconut husk is used as a potting medium to produce healthy forest tree saplings. [58][59] The tall variety is outcrossing while dwarf palms are incrossing, which has led to a much greater degree of genetic diversity within the tall group. However, it is not native and display a genetic bottleneck resulting from a founder effect. Some of the dwarf cultivars such as 'Malayan dwarf' have shown some promising resistance to lethal yellowing, while other cultivars such as 'Jamaican tall' are highly affected by the same plant disease. Elzebroek, A.T.G. The name comes from the old Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning 'head' or 'skull', after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. [62] This figure has been questioned based on the extremely small sample size that forms the basis of the paper that makes this claim. T. Pradeepkumar, B. Sumajyothibhaskar, and K.N. [14], In March 1521, a description of the coconut was given by Antonio Pigafetta writing in Italian and using the words "cocho"/"cochi", as recorded in his journal after the first European crossing of the Pacific Ocean during the Magellan circumnavigation and meeting the inhabitants of what would become known as Guam and the Philippines. [citation needed] They are also used in Hindu weddings as a symbol of prosperity. TRAMIL Research 31. The husk and shells can be used for fuel and are a source of charcoal. (1992). Cocos nucifera. Chem/IUPAC Name: Cocos Nucifera Oil is the fixed oil obtained by expression of the kernels of the seeds of the Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., Palmaceae. ", "Indian state decides coconut trees are no longer trees but palms", "Coconut tree loses tree status in Goa – Times of India", "Medieval Sourcebook: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325–1354", "Australia has a lot of coconut palms — so why don't we have a coconut industry? John S. Wilson (1959), Scouting Round the World. Copra is the dried meat of the seed and after processing produces coconut oil and coconut meal. coconut; Other Scientific Names. The green of the leaves (lamina) is stripped away, leaving the veins (long, thin, woodlike strips) which are tied together to form a broom or brush. Since then, numerous other fossils of similar fruits were recovered throughout New Zealand from the Eocene, Oligocene, and possibly the Holocene. ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre Project 1991, Muak-Lek, Saraburi, Thailand. The coconut palm thrives on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity. All of the coconut parts are applied topically to speed wound healing and to improve the skin generally. Santos, G.A., Batugal, P.A., Othman, A., Baudouin, L., and Labouisse J.P. 1996. Scientific Name: Cocos nucifera. Plant Form : Tree The Coconut / Buko tree or Coconut / Buko palm can be found in rainforests and countries with tropical climate such as in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Pacific. Due to growing sedentary lifestyles and heavy-handed landscaping, a decline in these traditional farming and soil-fixing techniques has occurred. Common Name: Maypan Coconut Scientific Name: Cocos nucifera Zone: 10B-11 Growth Rate: Moderate Origin: Jamaica Salt Tolerance: High Drought Tol. Coconuts are commonly grown around the northern coast of Australia, and in some warmer parts of New South Wales. The 2014 study hypothesized that instead the species evolved while on coral atolls in the Pacific, and then dispersed to the continents. The … CAS Number. Various other products made from thickened coconut milk with sugar and/or eggs like coconut jam and coconut custard are also widespread in Southeast Asia. Cocos nucifera Harries' adoption of the Polynesian terms niu kafa and niu vai has now passed into general scientific discourse, and his hypothesis is generally accepted. Coconut oil, aside from being used in cooking as an ingredient and for frying, is used in soaps, cosmetics, hair oil, and massage oil. The term can be referred to the coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit. [95], Coconut milk and coconut cream extracted from grated coconut is frequently added to various dessert and savory dishes, as well as in curries and stews. He explained how at Guam "they eat coconuts" ("mangiano cochi") and that the natives there also "anoint the body and the hair with coconut and beniseed oil" ("ongieno el corpo et li capili co oleo de cocho et de giongioli"). A recently discovered palm, Beccariophoenix alfredii from Madagascar, is nearly identical to the coconut, more so than the queen palm and can also be grown in slightly cooler climates than the coconut palm. coconnut, It is used for cooking various dishes. Description. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture and micropropagation. Nor were there coconuts on the east side of the African coast until Vasco da Gama, nor in the Caribbean when first visited by Christopher Columbus. In Sanskrit, it is kalpa vriksha ("the tree which provides all the necessities of life"). Coconut oil is used for cooking and in a wide range of beauty products. [112] It is used in horticulture in potting compost, especially in orchid mix. A coconut tree is also included in the country's national emblem and coat of arms. And no coconut can float over the sea faster than a balsa raft moves with the wind behind it. [98][99] In the Philippines, sweetened reduced coconut milk is marketed as coconut syrup and is used for various desserts. [34][35] The vast majority of Cocos-like fossils have been recovered generally from only two regions in the world: New Zealand and west-central India. [12] The earliest direct description is given by Cosmas Indicopleustes in his Topographia Christiana written around 545, referred to as "the great nut of India". Therefore, heavy turf grass environments (beach resorts and golf courses) also pose a major threat to local coconut trees. ; Diekmann, M. [4][5][6] Coco and coconut apparently came from 1521 encounters by Portuguese and Spanish explorers with Pacific islanders, with the coconut shell reminding them of a ghost or witch in Portuguese folklore called coco (also côca). [116] In parts of South India, the shell and husk are burned for smoke to repel mosquitoes. [90], It is one of the most useful trees in the world.[48]. [82] Other states, such as Goa, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal, and those in the northeast (Tripura and Assam) account for the remaining productions. This accompanies the palagip (prayer to the dead). Cocos-like fossils of fruits include "Cocos" intertrappeansis, "Cocos" pantii, and "Cocos" sahnii. EARTHQUAKE: 3.0 Magnitude Quake Hits Part of Davao Occidental, EARTHQUAKE: 3.4 Magnitude Quake Hits Part of Davao Occidental, JUST IN: 4.0 Magnitude Earthquake Jolts Sarangani, EARTHQUAKE: 4.9 Magnitude Quake Hits Quezon, Manny Pacquiao Message To People Who Don’t Want Him As President, Jinggoy Estrada Gets Asked About His Plan In 2022 Elections, Isko Moreno Answers Question About His Political Plan in 2022. Kona, ... Phonetic spelling of Latin names by edric. [80][81], Traditional areas of coconut cultivation in India are the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra, Odisha, West Bengal and, Gujarat and the islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar. [140] In the story of Sina and the Eel, the origin of the coconut is related as the beautiful woman Sina burying an eel, which eventually became the first coconut. [35][36] Endt & Hayward (1997) have noted their resemblance to members of the South American genus Parajubaea, rather than Cocos, and propose a South American origin. It is commonly believed that the name “coconut” was given by Portuguese sailors in the 16th century because the three holes on the coconut looked like a human face. Calappa nucifera (L.) Kuntze; Cocos indica Royle; Cocos nana Griffith; Cocos nucifera var. [53] Coconuts also need high humidity (at least 70–80%) for optimum growth, which is why they are rarely seen in areas with low humidity. [61] However, it can also be argued that the placement of the vulnerable eye of the nut (down when floating), and the site of the coir cushion are better positioned to ensure that the water-filled nut does not fracture when dropping on rocky ground, rather than for flotation. This mite infests coconut plantations, and is devastating; it can destroy up to 90% of coconut production. He hypothesized that the coconut originated in the Americas, based on his belief that American coconut populations predated European contact and because he considered pan-tropical distribution by ocean currents improbable. Dwarf varieties are also available. Last updated: 29 Nov 202029 Nov 2020 [136], The coconut is also used as a target and prize in the traditional British fairground game coconut shy. In 2018, world production of coconuts was 62 million tonnes, led by Indonesia, the Philippines, and India, with 74% combined of the total (table). Mature fruits have significantly less liquid than young, immature coconuts, barring spoilage. [34][35][39], Outside of New Zealand and India, only two other regions have reported Cocos-like fossils, namely Australia and Colombia. [24], The palm produces both the female and male flowers on the same inflorescence; thus, the palm is monoecious. For arthritis, nacíos (boils), flu and burns: Coconut timber comes from the trunk, and is increasingly being used as an ecologically sound substitute for endangered hardwoods.